Automated self-optimization, intensification, and scale-up of photocatalysis in flow

The robotic platform incorporates several key components, including a liquid handler, syringe pumps, a tunable continuous-flow photoreactor, cost-effective Internet of Things devices, and an in-line nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system. It uses a closed-loop BO approach to systematically explore a chosen parameter space encompassing both discrete and continuous variables. Consequently, the platform excels in identifying optimal reaction conditions that maximize either yield, throughput, or a combination thereof.